How Do Acne Scars Form Majority of acne scars are the product of persistent cases of inflamed acne. It is affecting individuals who suffer from consistent nodular and cystic acne breakouts. Large areas of the skin and underlying tissues are damaged during persistent acne inflammation. The inflammatory process immobilizes the cells and materials needed for skin repair, thus the original tissues are replaced by scar tissues.
Inflammation is basically the body’s immune response to infection to save the tissues from total destruction. Acne’s inflammatory process starts from the movement of white blood cells (pus) down to the hair follicle, sebaceous glands and surrounding tissues, which can further cause damage to the surrounding cells and tissue.
White blood cells are composed of macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, T cells, granulocytes, mast cells and other micro sub-types. Most of these cells create potent enzymes, inflammatory particles, super-oxides and free radicals, which are designed as weapons to neutralize pathogens and foreign invaders. However, during the inflammatory process, the pus spreads along with other healthy cells leading to further inflammation and damage, producing a vicious, self-fulfilling cycle.
During scarring process, the most significant type of white blood cell is the neutrophil. It is the first to respond to the infected area, which can largely multiply. Neutrophils are the main soldiers that kill bacteria and produce anti-microbial molecules. However, this killing process can cause significant damage to the surrounding tissue which can lead to scarring.
Scar tissue is made mostly of collagen, which becomes tightly bundled and lines up in a single direction, instead of the random web pattern. This alignment of the collagen fibers produces a thicker, less elastic tissue bundle. Moreover, scar tissue becomes resistant to cell migration, not allowing for the formation of blood vessels and regrowth of skin tissues, such as hair follicles and sweat glands. This is the reason why a scar appears monotone, a tough, dense, and hairless to touch.
Scar tissues are relatively permanent and are often difficult to treat. There are various ways presented to gradually replace scar tissue with the healthy (original) tissue, but this process is relevantly slow. Moreover, invasive treatment involves surgically removing of scar tissue, heat or laser treatments. These methods stimulate the skin repair process and produce space for new and healthy tissue to form.